When discussing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on public health, it is important to consider not only the direct consequences, but also the indirect effects. In addition to aspects such as the Post-Covid-Syndrome (Long-Covid) or the PIMS-Syndrome (especially affecting children), there are serious effects on mental health as well. Children and adolescents tend to be the most affected. Necessary restrictions in social life have far-reaching effects on the developmental processes of young people. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic exposes existing economic or social inequalities in our society. For example, the multi-layered demands and overburdens of the crisis on parents and guardians increase the risk of physical and emotional abuse among children and adolescents. As a result, mental and psychosomatic disorders are increasing among the younger generation. Furthermore, social inequalities are widening. Thus, young women and children from poverty-stricken families are most likely to suffer the negative consequences of the pandemic. Moreover, the social relationships of those who need them the most for their own personal development suffer. And alternative communication via social media is no substitute for “real” interpersonal relationships. A society-wide approach is needed to reduce mental burdens and, if possible, to counteract them preventively. To achieve this, more importance has to be assigned to the mental health of young people, especially at the political level. However, in order to finally develop adequate solutions and take appropriate measures, the participation of all stakeholders in the health care system is required.